Study characteristics

Study, yearIncluded in meta-analysisCountry of studyILD sample sizeType of ILDAge, yearsMale, %Baseline FVC, % predictedBaseline DLCO, % predictedMonocyte parametersTiming of monocyte measurementRelevant outcomes reported
Achaiah et al. [18], 2021YesUK32Indeterminate UIP76.7±6.26692.6±26.964.2 (16)>0.9×109 cells·L−1Within 3 months of initial CTVisual increase in extent of disease or progression of CT to “definite” or “probable” UIP
Achaiah et al. [19], 2022YesUK1259 (mortality)
362 (progression)
Early fibrotic ILA63.4±8.157.2NANA>1×109 cells·L−1Closest to CT; median time interval between CT and blood sample 13–30 daysRadiologic progression, all-cause mortality
Achaiah et al. [17], 2022 (NLR)YesUK128IPF74.8±6.97985.5 (69.9–98.0)6.19 (50.9–71.0)>0.9×109 cells·L−1Within 4 months of presentation to ILD clinicFVC decline >10% per year, all-cause mortality
Karampitsakos et al. [13], 2021YesMultinational300 (discovery)
189 (validation)
489 (pooled)
IPFNANANANA≥0.95×109 cells·L−1 (pooled)
≥0.6×109 cells·L−1 (discovery and validation)
Baseline (prior to antifibrotic treatment)All-cause mortality, 1-year disease progression as assessed by functional decline
Kreuter et al. [2], 2021YesUSA (multicentre)2067IPFNANANANA0.6–0.8×109 cells·L−1
≥0.95×109 cells·L−1
BaselineAll-cause mortality over 1 year
Scott et al. [4], 2019YesUSA (multicentre)130 (Stanford)
36 (COMET)
IPFNANANANA≥0.95×109 cells·L−1Stanford: within 30 days of diagnosis; COMET: baselineTransplant-free survival (discovery), mortality (validation)
Teoh et al. [15], 2020YesAustralia (multicentre)231IPF69.9±8.37180.3±2248.2±16.8≥0.95×109 cells·L−1BaselineSurvival
Zhang et al. [14], 2022YesChina (multicentre)34IPF64.5±9.4682.6977.39±20.3140.36±18.71>0.67×109 cells·L−1After admission to hospitalSurvival
Barratt et al. [9], 2021NoUK281fHP70 (65–80)4179 (65–94)50 (43–64)≥0.95×109 cells·L−1At the point of diagnosisSurvival
Bernardinello et al. [16], 2022NoItaly77Newly diagnosed IPF70 (53–81)8380 (50–125)57 (30–106)ContinuousAt diagnosis and within at least 1 year following antifibrotic therapyFVC decline ≥5% predicted over 1 year
Kim et al. [11], 2021NoMultinational1659ILA78±655NANA1sd incrementAt first clinic visitILA progression
Lv et al. [20], 2022NoChina351 (pooled)Anti-MDA5 positive DM-ILD53.11±1133.6NANA>0.24×109 cells·L−1Weekly for first 4 weeks of hospital admission6-month all-cause mortality
Shao et al. [21], 2022NoAustria95 (derivation)Fibrotic ILD70.9±1.566.681±3.154.8±2.7≥0.65×109 cells·L−1BaselineRelative FVC decline ≥10% or DLCO decline ≥15% at 1 year, death or lung transplant
  • CT: computed tomography; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; DM: dermatomyositis; fHP: fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis; FVC: forced vital capacity; ILA: interstitial lung abnormalities; ILD: interstitial lung disease; IPF: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; MDA5: melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; NA: not applicable/available; UIP: usual interstitial pneumonia.