Nonpharmacological management options and their effects on symptoms of depression and anxiety in people with COPD

Treatment optionsAnxietyDepression
Category of treatmentSpecific kind of treatmentEffectReferences of reviews/systematic reviews/meta-analysisEffectReferences of reviews/systematic reviews/meta-analysis
PsychotherapyCognitive behavioural therapy+[102]+[102]
Mindfulness-based intervention[103][103]
Self-management interventions++[104]++[104]
Relaxation therapyRelaxation therapy+[105]+[105]
Progressive muscle relaxation+[106]+[106]
Mind–body exerciseQigong+[107, 108]+[107, 108]
Tai chi[109][109]
Yoga[110, 111][110, 111]
Music therapyMusic therapy+[112][112]
Singing[113, 114][113, 114]
Integrated disease management[115, 116][115, 116]
Collaborative care model[117][117]
Pulmonary rehabilitation++[118]+++[118]
Telemonitoring[119, 120][119, 120]

+++: Strong evidence for beneficial effect; ++: moderate evidence for beneficial effect; +: small/promising evidence for beneficial effect; −: no consistent evidence for beneficial effect.