Summary of key points to consider when evaluating stent placement in specific clinical scenarios

Malignant central airway obstructionIn exclusively intrinsic airway disease, consider stenting only if acceptable airway patency cannot be achieved with debulking alone
Fibrosing mediastinitisLimited published data
Due to the nature of the pathology, heightened concerns for mucosal bleeding, migration and excessive granulation tissue formation
Excessive dynamic airway collapse and tracheobronchomalaciaEssential to treat any co-existing underlying disease, such as COPD
Increased risk of short-term and long-term complications
Tracheo-oesophageal fistula and dual stentingA careful assessment of fistula aetiology, fistula size, history of prior treatments, local anatomy, overall prognosis and goal(s) of care is needed prior to stent consideration
Distal airway stentingThe physiological benefit remains in question
Subglottic stenosisSurgery is the definitive treatment
Bronchoscopic intervention of any kind should only be considered in patients who are unfit for surgery, decline surgery or in an emergency airway obstruction (for rapid airway stabilisation, this should be followed by a surgical evaluation)
Relapsing polychondritisMedical management is the cornerstone of treatment
Due to the inflammatory nature of the disease, airway stenting should be approached with caution