Risk factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Gram-negative bacteria (including multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains)

Risk factor for MDR strain
 Older age [102]No
 Underweight [103]Yes
 Residence in a nursing home or extended care facility [102]No
Underlying conditions
 Chronic lung disease, mainly COPD and bronchiectasis [104106]Yes
 Immunodepression [102]No
 Chronic dialysis [102]No
 Cardiovascular disease [103, 105]Yes
 Cerebrovascular disease [105]No
 Diabetes [107]No
 Smoking [107]No
 Antimicrobial (both oral and intravenous) in the preceding 90 days [104, 106]Yes
 Home wound care [102]No
 Prior infection or colonisation with an MDR Gram-negative pathogen (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) [104, 107]Yes
 Prior hospitalisation [103]Yes
 Enteral tube feeding [105]No
Clinical presentation
 Severe disease (e.g. CAP requiring ICU admission) [103, 106]No
 PSI score III, IV [104]No

ICU: intensive care unit; PSI: pneumonia severity index.