Antibody responses in current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates

TB vaccineCurrent stage#Evidence of humoral immunityReferences
Antibodies in BCG vaccines
 BCGIgG against AM enhanced phagolysosome fusion and intracellular growth inhibition[51]
 BCGIgG against LAM enhanced cell and innate immunity, enhanced phagocytosis[52]
 BCGIgG against mycobacterial cell lysate elevated post-BCG[53]
Antibodies in subunit TB vaccines
 M72/AS01EIIbAnti-M72 IgG in humans correlated with protection and persisted for 3 years[56]
 H56:IC31IIbInduced H56-specific IgG in phase I trial[61]
 (H4:IC31, H56:IC31 and BCG revaccination)IInduced anti-H4 and anti-H56 IgG1 and IgG3[59]
 ID93/GLA-SEIIaID93-specific IgG induced in phase I trials[62]
 AM-Ag85AProtective anti-AM and anti-Ag85A antibodies in preclinical study[63]
Antibodies in viral vector-based TB vaccines
 MVA85AIIAg85A-specific CD4 T-cell failed to show protection while anti-Ag85A IgG was protective[12]
 MVA85A-IMX313 and MVA85AInduced IgG specific to Ag85A in phase I trials[66]
 ChAdOx185A/MVA85AIPrime vaccination induced anti-Ag85A IgG, and IgG levels increased by a booster vaccine[67]
Antibodies in whole-cell TB vaccines
 VPM1002 (rBCG)Live/IIHigher anti-PPD antibodies in human in phase II compared to BCG[68]
 DAR-901Killed/IIbInduced humoral immunity in mouse model of infection[69]
 RUTIKilled/IIaMixed Th1 and Th2 response with antigen-specific antibodies[70]

BCG: bacille Calmette–Guérin; AM: arabinomannan; LAM: lipoarabinomannan; Th: T-helper cell. #: the stages of the current TB vaccines included in the table refer to clinical development stages and are based on the TuBerculosis Vaccine Initiative [54].