TABLE 3

Effects of anaesthetic agents, vasopressors and inotropes on pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle function [42, 47, 96, 97, 100, 101]

AgentsmPAPPVRRV contractility
Anaesthetic agents
 Isoflurane↓↓
 Desflurane↓↓
 Sevoflurane↓↓
 Nitrous oxide↑↑↑↑
 Thiopental sodium
 Etomidate
 Ketamine↔/↑
 Propofol↓↓
 Fentanyl/sufentanil
 Remifentanil
Vasopressors
 Norepinephrine
 Epinephrine
 Phenylephrine↓↓
 Vasopressin
Inotropes
 Dobutamine↑, ↔, ↓#↑↑
 Milrinone↑↑
 Levosimendan

↑ Increase; ↑↑ marked increase; ↓ reduction; ↓↓ marked reduction; ↔ no effect. mPAP: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance; RV: right ventricle. #: Conflicting data about the effect of dobutamine in PVR. Dobutamine decreases PVR at low dose (<5 µg·kg−1·min−1), no effect at median dose of 10 µg·kg−1·min−1 and increases PVR at higher dose, more than 15 µg·kg−1·min−1 [47, 102104].