Patient report-based outcome (PRO) to assess disease burden or treatment efficacy in adults with chronic cough

HRQoL tools
LCQ [74]19 items over three domains: physical; psychological; social.Seven-point Likert scale (1=all of the time; 7=none of the time).1.5–2.5 [75, 76, 77]Developed and validated in chronic cough [74].
Used to assess treatment efficacy in clinical trials [7881].
Recommended in guidelines [82].
Well validated [77].
MCID defined [76, 77].
Translations are available in 60 languages, including a range of European languages, Thai [83], Mandarin Chinese [84] and Korean [85].
CQLQ score [86]28 items over six domains: physical complaints; extreme physical complaints; psychosocial issues; emotional wellbeing; personal safety fears; functional abilities.Four-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 4=strongly agree).10.6 [87]
10.6–21.9 [77, 82]
Developed and validated in chronic cough [86].
Used to assess treatment efficacy in clinical trials [88, 89].
Recommended in guidelines [82].
Well validated [77].
MCID defined [77].
ACOS [45]29 items over two domains (physical; psychosocial).Yes or no.10.6–21.9 [82]Superseded by CQLQ [82].
CSS [90]Two items: cough severity in daytime and night-time.Six-point scale (0=no symptoms; 5=most severe).Little clinical experience [77].
MCID not defined [77].
Has been translated into Korean [91].
CSD [92]Seven items: frequency (three items); intensity (two items); disruptiveness (two items).11-point scale (0=never; 10=constantly).≥1.3 CSD (total score)
−1.4 to −1.1 (domain scores) [93]
Developed in response to patient feedback [92].
Validated and MCID defined [93].
Widely used in clinical trials.
HARQ [94]14 items covering major components of chronic coughSix-point scale (0=no symptoms; 5=most severe)16 [94]Designed as a diagnostic test for chronic cough based on the symptoms of airway reflux [94].
High sensitivity and specificity [94].
Used in clinical trials [95, 96].
Translations are available in over 20 languages, including Mandarin Chinese [97] and Swedish [98].
Available for download at

ACOS: Adverse Cough Outcome Survey; CQLQ: Cough-specific QoL Questionnaire; CSD: Cough Severity Diary; CSS: Cough Symptom Score; HARQ: Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire; HRQoL: health-related quality of life; LCQ: Leicester Cough Questionnaire; MCID: minimal clinically important difference; RCC: refractory chronic cough. Adapted from [77].