TABLE 1

Factors impacting sex and gender difference in asthma

FactorAssociation by sexReference
Dysanapsis during developmentIncreased risk in males[34]
SNPs in genes
TSLPrs1837253 decreased asthma risk in males[87]
s2289276 decreased asthma risk in females[87]
IFNGrs2069727 heterozygosity increased risk in males but decreased in females[10]
IRF1Increased risk in females[88]
RAP1GAP2Increased risk in females[88]
 Vitamin D receptorsIncreased risk in females[89]
KCNMB1Decreased FEV1 in males[90]
 β2-adrenergic receptorIncreased risk in males[91]
ESR1Increased risk[92]
HSD3B1Decreased responsiveness to therapeutics in females[93]
CpG methylationIncreased risk in females[96]
ObesityIncreased risk in females[7, 8, 35]
Environmental exposures
 Cigarette smokeIncreased risk in men but, when comparing within smokers, increased risk in women[8, 120]
 DieselIncreased risk in men[8]
 Flour/baker productsIncreased risk in men[115]
 Hair product-related  allergyIncreased risk in women[115]
 Wood or wood component  dustIncreased risk in men[115]
 Inorganic dustIncreased risk of symptoms in women, decreased lung function in men[115]
 Cleaning productsNo gender differences[117]
 OzoneDecreased lung function in women[115, 116]
 Healthcare utilisationIncreased risk in women[99, 101]
 Perception of asthmaIncreased risk in women[100, 101]
  • SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in the first second.