TABLE 3

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) experimental models used to assess sex hormone involvement in PH development

FindingsFirst author, year [reference]
Chronic hypoxia induced PHDevelopment of PH in male>female
PH reduced on exogenous E2
Rabinovitch, 1981 [50]
McMurty, 1973 [51]
Lahm, 2012 [52]
Monocrotaline induced PHVascular lesion and RV hypertrophy reduced under ovariectomy
PH reduced on exogenous E2
Yuan, 2013 [19]
Tofovic, 2006 [53]
Ahn, 2003 [54]
Sugen/hypoxia induced PHSurvival in female with PH>male
PH severity in female>male
PH severity in female under ovariectomy>no ovariectomy
Vasoconstriction and remodelling reduced with exogenous E2
Exogenous E2 protects RV function
Rafikova, 2015 [55]
Tofovic, 2012 [56]
Frump, 2015 [57]
Philip, 2020 [58]
Liu, 2017 [59]
Mitomycin/cyclophosphamide induced PHPH severity in female>malePerros, 2015 [60]
Ranchoux, 2015 [61]
Dexfenfluramine/SERT+ induced PHDevelopment of PH in female>maleWhite, 2011 [62]
Dempsie, 2011 [63]
Dempsie, 2013 [64]
Overexpressed SERT+Development of PH in female with attenuation of PH under ovariectomyWhite, 2011 [65]
ObesityDevelopment of PH in female and maleMair, 2019 [66]
Nfu1g206c mutationDevelopment of PH in female>maleNiihori, 2020 [67]
SU5416-treatment and chronic hypoxiaPH severity in female>maleTamosiuniene, 2018 [68]

SERT+: serotonin transporter; E2: 17β-oestradiol; RV: right ventricle.