Epidemiology of tracheal defects

Traumatic tracheobronchial injuriesCause of 2.5–3.2% of trauma-associated deaths
Present in 0.5–2.0% of trauma patients showing chest/neck injuries
<1% of elective orotracheal intubations
0.05–0.37% of endotracheal intubations
Tracheal tumoursTracheal malignancies present in <1% of people
Primary tracheal carcinomas present in <1% people each year
[9, 10]
TBMOverall epidemiology is unknown, but TBM is present in 23% of COPD patients, 44% of patients with chronic bronchitis and 1% of all patients undergoing bronchoscopy[11]
Post-intubation tracheal stenosis6–21% of patients that underwent intubation[12, 13]
Oesophageal atresia<1% of births[14]
Tracheal agenesis<1% of births[15]
Tracheo–oesophageal fistulas<1% of births[16]

COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; TBM: tracheobronchomalacia.