TABLE 1

Prevalence of comorbidities in England compared to patients with COPD

Prevalence in control population#Prevalence in COPDReference(s)
Osteoporosis/osteopenia18–2250–70[16, 17]
Hypertension34–4140–60[10, 18]
GORD3330–60[19]
Skeletal muscle dysfunction932[20]
Depression7–1225[21]
Ischaemic heart disease1510–23[22]
Diabetes6–1012–13[10, 23]
Previous stroke310–14[18, 23]
Arrhythmia5–1111–12[18]
Congestive heart failure45–19[18, 24]
Obesity17–3218–54[25]

Data are presented as %. GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Adapted from [15]. #: control population from the same study(ies) as the COPD comorbidity prevalence reported.