Summary of current studies examining the lung microbiome in individuals with NTM disease#

YearPatient typePatient characteristicsPatients nSample typePredominant taxa by OTU
Yamasaki et al. [50]2015NTM-positive bronchiectasisStable, met ATS criteria for NTM disease and without history of antimicrobial treatment.27BALPrevotella, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Haemophilus, Granulicatella, Curvibacter, Lactobacillus
NTM-negative bronchiectasisAs above but did not meet ATS criteria for NTM disease.25BALHaemophilus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Trabulsiella, Granulicatella, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium
Sulaiman et al. [49]2018NTM-positive bronchiectasisStable, non-HIV, non-CF bronchiectasis. Inclusion criteria included CT imaging abnormalities and symptoms consistent with bronchiectasis. Exclusion criteria included patients with recent antimicrobial or corticosteroid therapy in the last month and recent history of smoking in the last year. Met ATS criteria for NTM disease.61Oral wash and induced sputumActinomyces, Actinomycetaceae, Streptophyta, Cyanobacteria, Streptophyta, Bifidobacteriales, Bifidobacteriaceae, Bifidobacterium, Rhodobacterales, Rhodobacteraceae, Bacillus
BAL+Mycobacterium, Ralstonia, Clavibacter, Oxalobacteraceae, Enterobacter, Comamonas, Hyphomonadaceae, Xenococcaceae, Paracoccus, Lactobacillales
NTM-negative bronchiectasisAs above but did not meet ATS criteria for NTM disease.
45Oral wash and induced sputumProteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Pasteurellales, Pasteurellalaceae, Pseudomonadales, Pseudomonadaceae, Pseudomonas, Actinobacillus, Weeksellaceae, Comamonadaceae
BAL+Porphyromonas, Mannheimia, Kaistobacter, Selenomonas, Dialister
Philley et al. [51]2019NTM-positive and breast cancerStable, patients met ATS criteria for NTM disease.15Expectorated sputum ± sera-derived extracellular vesicles§Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veilonella, Rothia, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, Streptococcus, Alistipes, Cloacibacterium, Faecalibacterium, Lachnoclostridium, Staphylococcus, Neisseria, Fusicatenibacter, Fusobacterium, Lachnospira, Tepidimonus
NTM-negativeStable, healthy controls.
5Expectorated sputumHaemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Rothia, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Prevotella

NTM: nontuberculous mycobacteria; OTU: operational taxonomic unit; ATS: American Thoracic Society; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; CF: cystic fibrosis; CT: computed tomography. #: the studies presented here focus on non-CF conditions; : as defined by the ATS/Infectious Diseases Society of America 2007 criteria [4]; +: a subset of 20 patients underwent BAL sampling, with eight patients identified as NTM-positive and 12 as NTM-negative; §: sera-derived extracellular vesicles were examined in a subset of four patients from the NTM-breast cancer group.