First author [ref.]YearCountrySample sizeSample populationQuestionnaireCut-off#Sensitivity %Specificity %AUC
Lopez Varela [37]2019Mexico974≥40 years of age and ≥10 pack-years, or ≥50 pipes per year or ≥50 cigars per year and/or exposure to biomass smokePUMA≥585.437.60.70
Fujita [38]2020Japan1001No previous diagnosis of asthma, TB and lung cancerChanged CDQ≥1881.659.70.73
Ronaldson [30]2018UK216≥35 years of age and current smokersCOPD-PSStandard scoring criteria53.378.60.66
CDQStandard scoring criteria81.552.30.67
Spyratos [28]2017Greece3234>40 years of age and ≥10 pack-yearsCDQ≥1774720.80
Weiss [31]2017Austria775≥40 years of ageSCSQ≥
Demirci [40]2017Turkey35740–65 years of age, with no previous history of obstructive lung diseaseCAT≥1166.775.2NA
Sogbetun [27]2016USA376No limitationVAFOSQ≥2566430.58
255No limitation11-Q≥59490.61
362No limitationCOPD-PS≥569460.62
376No limitationLFQ≤1895140.66
336No limitationPersonal level screener COPDQuestionnaire algorithm50690.59
Lopez Varela [32]2016Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Uruguay1540≥40 years of age and ≥10 pack-years, or ≥50 pipes per year or ≥50 cigars per year and/or exposure toPUMA≥25 (weighted)76.369.30.79
biomass smoke≥5 (simple)
Sogbetun [46]2016USA278All patients with a previously scheduled office visitVAFOSQ (retrospective validation)≥2559.969.80.72
Llordes [47]2017Spain407≥40 years of age and ≥1 pack-year, with noEGARPOC1372.958.30.68
previous diagnosis ofRHSQ>1773.8560.72
Two screening questionsBoth positive59.851.70.56
Stanley [29]2014Australia105440–85 years of age and former or current smokers, with no previous diagnosisCDQ≥16.579.746.80.71
of COPD≥19.56370.1
Cui [35]2012China150≥40 years of age; COPD patients (n=100) and non-COPD patients (n=50)Discriminant function modelNA8982NA
Miravitlles [45]2012Spain173Controls: ≥35 years of age and no previous diagnosis of COPD Cases: COPDCOPD-PS (Spanish)≥493.664.80.79
stages I and II≥565.488
Sichletidis [26]2011Greece1078≥40 years of age and no previous diagnosis of COPDCDQ≥178095NA
Frith [43]2011Australia204≥50 years of age, smoker/ex-smoker and no previous diagnosis of obstructiveCDQ≥16.591370.72
lung disease≥19.57162
Kotz [36]2008The Netherlands67640–70 years of age and >10 pack-years, with respiratory symptoms and no previousCDQ≥16.589.224.40.65
respiratory diagnosis≥19.565.854.0
Price [41]2006UK, USA246≥40 years of age and smokers, with no previous respiratoryCDQ≥16.558.7770.82

AUC: area under the curve; TB: tuberculosis; PUMA: PUMA study questionnaire; COPD-PS: COPD population screener; CDQ: COPD diagnostic questionnaire; LFQ: lung function questionnaire; SCSQ: Salzburg COPD-screening questionnaire; CAT: COPD assessment test; VAFOSQ: veterans airflow obstruction screening questionnaire; 11-Q: 11-Q COPD screening questionnaire; EGARPOC: EGARPOC study questionnaire; RHSQ: respiratory health screening questionnaire; NA: not available. #: cut-off based on questionnaire score.