TABLE 1

Study and patient characteristics at baseline, before atrial septal defect (ASD) closure

First author [ref].Study designTime periodSample size nAge yearsFemaleASD diameter mmNYHA class III–IVPH assessment methodPH measure and cut-offs mmHgMean sPAP mmHgPH prevalence
Veldtman [31]#Retrospective cohort1997–19994038 (20–71)7513±45TEEsPAP >35NR62
De Lezo [32]Case seriesNR2956±148326±748TTE/TEEsPAP ≥4064±23100
Bruch [33]Case seriesNR1566 (48–77)66.622.7±7.0 (9–34)60TTE/RHCmPAP >2558.3±15100
Balint [34]#,¶Case series1999−20045459±157618±741TTE/TEEsPAP 40–49 (mild), 50–59 (moderate), ≥60 (severe)58±10100
Yong [35]#,¶Prospective cohort1999−200621554±167319±619TTEsPAP ≥40Median (IQR) 30.0 (25.0–36.0)50.2
Yalonetsky [36]#Retrospective cohort1998−NR23NRTTEsPAP cut-off NRNR
 Age 40–60 years52±67419±539±7.7
 Age 60+ years67±57018±553±16.2
Altindag [37]Retrospective cohort1999–20084758±13 (40–79)79NR43TTE/TEENRNR62
Humenberger [38]#,¶Prospective cohortNRTTE/TEEsPAP ≥40NR
 Age<40 years7829±6.761.5Median (IQR) 23 (29–26)1.331±7
 Age 40–60 years8450±5.665.5Median (IQR) 22 (17.5–26.5)3.837±10
 Age >60 years7471±6.182.4Median (IQR) 22.5 (20–28)41.453±17
Huang [39]Retrospective cohort2007–20101532.3±12.873.3NRNRRHCsPAP ≥60 (severe PAH)51.6±9.4100
Kefer [40]#Prospective cohort1999−200911246±1771PH: 22±5
no PH: 18±6
31TTEsPAP >4047±728
Nakagawa [41]¶#Prospective cohort2005–20103075.8±3.8 (70–85)66.620.3±6.435TEEmPAP ≥2535.6±11.853
Mangiafico [42]#Prospective cohort2008–2011NRNRTTEsPAP cut-off NRNR
 Age <40 years1029±7.3035.1±6.6
 Age >40 years2058±11041.2±6.4
Akagi [9]Case series2006–2014RHC
 PHM group 1837±1510022±788sPAP ≥6060±11100
 Non-PHM group 21466±137123±821mPAP ≥2558±17
Wang [43]Retrospective cohort2000–2009179Median (IQR) 53 (40–81)75.4NR8.9TEEsPAP ≥4044.8±22.224
Dalvi [44]Case series2009–2014629±8.8983.328±2.090RHCmPAP ≥25102.6±11.5100

Data are presented as mean (range), %, mean±sd or mean±sd (range), unless otherwise stated. NYHA: New York Heart Association; PH: pulmonary hypertension; sPAP: systolic pulmonary artery pressure; TEE: transoesophageal echocardiography; TTE: transthoracic echocardiography; RHC: right heart catheterisation; NR: not reported; mPAP: mean pulmonary artery pressure; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; PHM: pulmonary hypertension medication. #: study-reported sPAP values derived from right ventricular systolic pressure; : study-reported values for PAH.