Alternative bronchoscopic approaches to stent placement: summary of anecdotal approaches

First author (year) [reference]MethodAetiologyLocation/fistula sizeImprovementComplications
Scappaticci (2004) [35]Fibrin glue: TissucolBenign: post-intubationTrachea, <5 mmNear complete closure in <24 hNone
Miller (2014) [38]Atrial septal occluder: AmplatzerBenign: prolonged stentingTrachea, not reportedComplete closureDislodged, airway obstruction, infection at 3 months after placement
Traina (2018) [40]Atrial septal occluder: AmplatzerBenign: post-tracheostomyTrachea, not reportedComplete closureNone
Mahajan (2018) [42]ACell decellularised porcine urinary bladder matrix; Y-stentBenign: inflammationRight mainstem, 2 cmComplete closure after 10 daysNone
Traina (2010) [43]Over-the-scope clippingBenign: post-tracheostomyTrachea, 4 cm below vocal cords, fistula 1 cm below stenosisComplete closure/resume dietNone
Mozer (2019) [44]Endobronchial suture (Cor-Knot device)Benign: iatrogenic surgeryTrachea, 12 mmComplete closure with oral diet at 6 monthsNone
Wong (2019) [37]Fibrin sealant (Evicel)/silicone-covered stent (Bonastent)Benign: broncholithRight mainstem, 2 cmComplete closure/resume dietNone
Lee (2015) [45]Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closureOesophageal cancer, post-oesophagectomyNot applicableComplete closure after 10 daysNone