TABLE 1

Key ongoing or recently completed interventional trials in COPD, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to the mechanisms of ageing, inflammation and cellular phenotype

Study nameStudy identifierStudy overviewDisease areaPhase
Ageing
 HIV-related Accelerated Aging of the Airway EpitheliumNCT01974219Observational study investigating the role HIV may play in the accelerated ageing of the small airway endothelium and development of COPDCOPDN/A
 Pulmonary Rehabilitation Innovation and Microbiota in Exacerbations of COPD (PRIME)NCT03701945An interventional study to investigate how the microbiota of the lungs contributes to pulmonary ageing and AECOPD, and the impact pulmonary rehabilitation has on AECOPDCOPDN/A
 In Utero Smoking and Premature Cellular SenescenceNCT01865435A trial to investigate telomere length as a surrogate for cellular senescence in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from the cord blood of newborns from mothers with absence of smoking or smoking >5 cigarettes per dayCOPDN/A
 Nutritional and Functional Changes in Heart Failure and COPDNCT01787682An interventional trial to investigate gut absorption in patients with CVD or COPD and if this can be improved with a high protein supplement to reduce muscle loss in these patientsCVD, COPDN/A
 Cardio-vascular Protective Effects of Wolfberry in Middle-aged and Older AdultsNCT03535844A single-blind 16-week study investigating the protective effects of Wolfberry in positively changing endothelial function and lipidomic profilesCVDN/A
 Regulation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Short-Term Exercise (EPC-Ex)NCT01169831An open interventional study investigating the effects of exercise on endothelial progenitor cell numbers in sedentary older adults and older endurance athletesCVDN/A
 Prevention of Cardiovascular Stiffening With Aging and Hypertensive Heart Disease (LVH)NCT03476785An open interventional trial to assess how exercise intervention prevents the age-related stiffening of the left ventricule and vasculatureCVDN/A
 n-3 PUFA for Vascular Cognitive AgingNCT01953705A 3-year interventional study to investigate if omega 3 PUFA can support small blood vessels in the brain and promote brain health in adults >75 years of age with a high risk of cognitive declineCVD2
 Impact of Ageing on Adipose, Muscle and Systemic InflammationNCT02777138Observational study of macrophage and T-cells in adipose tissue and inflammatory markers (mRNA and protein secretions) between a group of younger and older males with similar lifestylesCVD, T2DN/A
 Cell Signaling and Resistance to Oxidative Stress: Effects of Aging and ExerciseNCT03419988An open interventional study investigating the effects of exercise on the expression of an antioxidant regulation protein nuclear erythroid-2-p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy younger (18–28 years) and older (>60 years) adultsCVD, T2DN/A
 Resistance Exercise and Low-Intensity Physical Activity Breaks in Sedentary Time to Improve Muscle and Cardiometabolic Health (REALPA)NCT03771417An interventional study to assess the impact of resistance exercise with low-intensity physical activity breaks on skeletal muscle and cardiometabolic health in adults aged 65–80 yearsCVD, T2DN/A
 Dietary Reduction of AGEs to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Elderly DiabeticsNCT02739971An intervention pilot study to investigate if it is feasible to reduce dietary AGEs and therefore reduce cognitive declineT2DN/A
Inflammation
 Efficacy of Periodontal Treatment on Systemic Inflammation and for Prevention of Exacerbations in Patients With COPD (Expertention)NCT03279718An interventional pilot study to investigate if periodontal treatment can reduce systemic inflammatory markers (including CRP and IL-1b and IL-6)COPDN/A
 INvestigating COPD Outcomes, Genomics and Neutrophilic Inflammation With Tiotropium and Olodaterol (INCOGNITO)NCT03152149An open-label interventional trial comparing treatment of patients with COPD with tiotropium and olodaterol reduces bacterial load and neutrophilic inflammation versus inhaled fluticasone furoate and vilanterolCOPD4
 Pivotal Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Dupilumab in Patients With Moderate-to-severe COPD With Type 2 Inflammation (BOREAS)NCT03930732An interventional study to assess the efficacy of dupilumab (an IL-4 receptor alpha antibody) in reducing the annual exacerbation rate in patients with moderate-to-severe COPDCOPD3
 Biological Effects of Quercetin in COPDNCT03989271A study to determine if a dietary supplement, quercetin, can enhance anti-inflammatory effects in patients with COPD and reduce markers of oxidative stress and inflammationCOPD1/2
 Anti-ST2 (MSTT1041A) in COPD (COPD-ST2OP)NCT03615040An interventional study to assess the use of an IL-33 inhibitor on the frequency of AECOPD events in patients with COPD over 48 weeksCOPD2
 A 12-week Study Treating Participants Who Have alpha1-antitrypsin-related COPD With Alvelestat (MPH966) or Placebo (ASTRAEUS)NCT03636347An interventional study investigating the effects of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficient Pizz or null phenotype with COPD. Outcomes include sputum and blood inflammatory biomarkers, including neutrophil elastase activity.COPD2
 Effect of IL-1β Inhibition on Inflammation and Cardiovascular RiskNCT02272946An interventional study to investigate the effects of IL-1β inhibitor canakinumab in reducing vascular inflammation in HIV-infected individualsCVD2
 ASSessing the Effect of Anti-IL-6 Treatment in Myocardial Infarction: The ASSAIL-MI Trial (ASSAIL-MI)NCT03004703An interventional study to assess the impact of a single administration of an anti-IL-6 antibody, tocilizumab, on myocardial damage following myocardial infarctionCVD2
 Effects of SGLT-2 Inhibition on Myocardial Fibrosis and Inflammation as Assessed by Cardiac MRI in Patients With DM2NCT03782259An interventional study to investigate how inhibition of a glucose transporter, SGLT-2, with dapagliflozin impacts cardiovascular health and inflammation in patients with T2DCVD, T2D4
Cellular processes
 Early iNO for Oxidative Stress, Vascular Tone and Inflammation in Babies With Hypoxic Respiratory FailureNCT01891500An interventional study to investigate an already approved intervention, inhaled nitric oxide, in newborns with hypoxic respiratory failure to reduce biomarkers of oxidative injuryCVD4
 Impacts of Mitochondrial-targeted Antioxidant on Peripheral Artery Disease PatientsNCT03506633An interventional study to examine the impact of a mitochondrial antioxidant (MitoQ) on vascular endothelial function in patients with peripheral vascular diseaseCVDN/A
 Effects of Saxagliptin on Adipose Tissue Inflammation in HumansNCT02285985An interventional study to investigate the effects of saxagliptin on adipose tissue inflammation in obese participantsT2D4

AECOPD: acute exacerbations of COPD; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acid; AGEs: advanced glycation end-products; CRP: C-reactive protein; IL: interleukin; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; DM2: type-2 diabetes; N/A: not available; iNO: inhaled nitric oxide.