TABLE 1

Minimum training requirements for the practice of medical ultrasound in Europe

Level 1: practice at this level would usually require the following abilities
 To perform common examinations safely and accurately
 To recognise and differentiate normal anatomy and pathology
 To diagnose common abnormalities within certain organ systems
 To recognise when referral for a second opinion is indicated
Level 2: practice at this level would usually require the following abilities
 To accept and manage referrals from Level 1 practitioners
 To recognise and correctly diagnose almost all pathology within the relevant organ system
 To perform basic, non-complex ultrasound-guided invasive procedures
 To teach ultrasound to trainees and to Level 1 practitioners
 To conduct some research in ultrasound
Level 3: this is an advanced level of practice, which involves the following abilities
 To accept tertiary referrals from Level 1 and 2 practitioners
 To perform specialised ultrasound examinations
 To perform advanced ultrasound-guided invasive procedures
 To conduct substantial research in ultrasound
 To teach ultrasound at all levels
 To be aware of and to pursue developments in ultrasound

Reproduced with permission from [27].