Key targets in fibrogenesis and their corresponding clinically tested drugs

Target moleculesAgent (company) or JAPIC identifier
Galectin-3TD139 (Balecto Biotech)NCT02257177
AutotaxinGLPG1690 (Galapagos NV)NCT03711162
GPR84GLPG1205 (Galapagos NV)NCT03725852
GPR40 and GPR84PBI-4050 (ProMetic BioSciences, Inc.)NCT02538536
PDE, 5-LO, LT, phospholipase C and thromboxane A2Tripelukast (MediciNova)NCT02503657
Integrin αvβ6BG00011 (Biogen)NCT03573505
Pentraxin-2PRM-151 (Promedior, Inc.)NCT02550873
Rho-associated kinase 2KD025 (Kadmon Corporation, LLC)NCT02688647
Connective tissue growth factorFG-3019 (FibroGen)NCT01262001
c-Jun N-terinal kinaseCC-90001 (Celgene)NCT03142191
Nrf2Bardoxolone methyl (Reata Pharmaceuticals)NCT02036970
Receptor for B-cell activating factor of the TNF familyVAY736 (Novartis)NCT03287414
Heat shock protein 47ND-L02-s0201 (Nitto BioPharma)NCT03538301
SomatostatinOctreitude (Novartis Pharma)NCT00463983
VEGFR, MET, FMS and PDGFRTAS-115 (Taiho Pharma)JapicCTI-183898

PDE: phosphodiesterase; 5-LO: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase; LT: leukotriene; TNF: tumour necrosis factor; VEGFR: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; MET: hepatocyte growth factor receptor; FMS: Feline McDonough Sarcoma oncogene; PDGFR: platelet-derived growth factor receptor.