TABLE 1

Examples of indirect pathogenicity for bacteria that are part of the cystic fibrosis lung microbiome

Species protectedProtected againstProtected byProduced by[Ref.]
Haemophilus influenzaeAmpicillinPenicillinasesEnterobacteriaceae[39]
 β-lactam antibioticsβ-lactamasesM. catarrhalis[40]
StreptococciPenicillinPenicillinasesStaphylococci[41]
Ampicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureusAmpicillinPenicillinasesP. aeruginosa[42]
Streptococcus pneumoniaeβ-lactam antibioticsβ-lactamasesM. catarrhalis[43]
Amoxicillinβ-lactamasesH. influenzae[44]
ChloramphenicolChloramphenicol acetyltransferaseResistant S. aureus/
S. pneumoniae
[38]
Pseudomonas aeruginosaImipenem and ceftazidimeβ-lactamasesS. maltophilia[45]
 Ceftazidimeβ-lactamasesPrevotella sp.[46]
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosaCarbapenemsCarbapenem-hydrolysing class D β-lactamasesA. baumannii[47]
Staphylococcus aureusGentamicinAminoglycoside-modifying enzymesP. aeruginosa[48]