TABLE 1

Clinical performance of selected examples# of breath analysis in cancer

CancerMethodRef.Differential diagnosisDiagnosisMonitoringClassification/staging
Sens.Spec.Acc.Sens.Spec.Acc.Sens.SpecAcc.Sens.Spec.Acc.
LungLow-dose CT[2, 3]80–100>9052–6548–79PPV 10052–9148–95PPV 79;
NPV 78–93
Breath analysis[4–9]60–10057–10059–9470–9173–888828–9375–10080–9278–9273–9583–88
BreastMammography[10, 11]93–9689–9371–8742–8875–9270
Breath analysis[12, 13]63–9476–8271–8871–10070–10071–100
OvarianCA125 and TVU[14]77–8975–99
Breath analysis[15, 16]59–8361–10061–89
GastricGastroscopy[17]69–8485–96
Breath analysis[18–21]71–9787–9177–9673–969892–9545–9341–9843–92
ColorectalColonoscopy[22, 23]66–9930–10070–9688–9882–99
Breath analysis[24]8594911008894

Data are presented as percentages and represent either a range of results (when more than one study is included) or a single result (when only one study tested the specific application). Sens.: sensitivity; Spec.: specificity; Acc.: accuracy; CT: computed tomography; TVU: transvaginal ultrasound; PPV: positive predictive value; NPV: negative predictive value. #: data based on selected representative studies rather than a comprehensive literature review.