TABLE 2

Genetic biomarkers

GeneChromosomeMechanism[Ref.]
MUC5B11p15Encodes glycoproteins in airway mucus[87–99]
TOLLIP11p15Regulates innate immunity through Toll-like receptors (TLRs)[91, 100]
TERT/TERC5p15.33/3q26Maintains telomere length[101–108]
TLR34q35Regulates innate immunity[109, 110]
SFTPC8p21Facilitates surfactant function and transport and innate defence[111, 112]
ABCA316p13.3ATP-binding cassette involved in surfactant production[113]
SFTPA210q22.3Facilitates surfactant function and transport and innate defence[114]
CSF2RA and CSF2RBXp22.33, Yp11.2 and 22q12.3Reduce granulocyte−macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor signalling[115, 116]