Definitions of personalised medicine

Personalised medicineHuman health and illness are the consequence of all dynamic interactions within human beings, considered as complex adaptive systems [10]
A medical model that proposes the customisation of healthcare, with decisions and practices being tailored to the individual patient by use of genetic or other information [21]
A form of medicine that uses information about a person's genes, proteins and environment to prevent, diagnose and treat disease [22]
Tailoring of medical treatment to the specific characteristics of each patient by classifying individuals into subpopulations that are uniquely or disproportionately susceptible to a particular disease or responsive to a specific treatment [23]
The right treatment for the right patient at the right time [24, 25]
P4 medicineMedicine that is predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory to optimise wellness and minimise disease for each individual [26]
Precision medicineTreatments targeted to the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patients with similar clinical presentations [27–29]
Individualised medicineRelates not only to medicine, but also focuses on the flow of biological data and relevant medical information directly to individuals as drivers of healthcare [30]