Common types of systemic amyloidosis

Precursor proteinAcquired/hereditaryOrgan involvementSymptoms and signsTreatment
Systemic ALMonoclonal LCsAcquired; caused by plasma cell cloneAll organs (except the brain)Depend on organ involvedChemotherapy, ASCT
Localised ALMonoclonal LCsAcquired; caused by plasma cell cloneTracheobronchial tree, lungs, urinary bladder, skin (others)Depend on locationLocalised therapy
ATTRwtWild-type transthyretinAcquired; age-relatedHeart, soft tissue, lungHeart failureHeart failure therapy (new therapies)
ATTRmMutated transthyretinHereditaryHeart, PNS/ANSHeart failure and peripheral neuropathyLiver transplant (new therapies)
AAApolipoprotein serum amyloid AAcquired; reactive to chronic inflammationHeart, kidney, liver, lungNephrotic syndromeTreatment of underlying condition

The amyloid types are identified by acronyms where the letter “A” for amyloidosis is followed by the abbreviation of the protein forming the amyloid fibrils. LCs: immunoglobulin light chains; ASCT: autologous stem cell transplant; PNS: peripheral nervous system; ANS: autonomic nervous system.