Relevant studies for nasal high flow (NHF) use in intensive care unit (ICU) post-extubated patients

 Rittayamai et al. [34]Randomised, non-blinded, crossover study17 successfully weaned patients received NHF for 30 min followed by SOT for another 30 min and vice versaUse of NHF was associated with significant reductions in dyspnoea, heart rate and breathing frequency compared with a non-rebreathing mask
 Maggiore et al. [35]Randomised, controlled, open-label trial105 extubated patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 randomised to either NHF or Venturi maskNHF in the post-extubation period resulted in better oxygenation for the same set FiO2, decreased respiratory rate, improved patient comfort, reduced episodes of oxygen desaturations and frequency of need for ventilator support of any kind
 Hernández et al. [38]Multicentre, randomised clinical trial527 patients at low risk of post-extubation respiratory failure randomised to NHF or SOT after extubationNHF in comparison with SOT resulted in less post-extubation respiratory failure (8.3% versus 14.4%) and lower re-intubation rate (4.9% versus 12.2%)
No benefit
 Tiruvoipati et al. [39]Randomised crossover study50 extubated patients received either NHF followed by high-flow face mask for 30 min each or vice versaNo significant difference in gas exchange, respiratory rate or haemodynamics was observed between groups. Tolerance was significantly better with NHF
 Hernández et al. [40]Multicentre, prospective cohort study604 patients at high risk of post-extubation respiratory failure randomised to NHF or NIV after extubationNHF had similar re-intubation rates and median time to re-intubation with NIV. ICU length of stay was lower in the NHF group

SOT: standard oxygen treatment; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; FiO2: inspiratory oxygen fraction; NIV: noninvasive ventilation.