Key diagnostic and management issues with regard to comorbidities in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs)

The use of immediate antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory infections
The recognition of chronic infection as a cause of rapid deterioration of ILD
The recognition of GORD as a possible cause of the development and acute deterioration of pulmonary fibrosis
The recognition of disproportionate PH in patients with mild-to-moderate ILD
The stratification of patients with ILD and lung cancer according to the risk of post-operative complications
The recognition of PE and CAD as causes of shortness of breath that is disproportionate to the extent of the underlying ILD
The diagnosis of OSA and the institution of management associated with good patient compliance. The referral of patients with clinically significant depression for psychiatric advice
  • GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; PH: pulmonary hypertension; PE: pulmonary embolism; CAD: coronary artery disease; OSA: obstructive sleep apnoea.