Proposed classification of dysfunctional breathing patterns, with associated lung diseases and key references

Breathing patternNumber of papersKey referencesLinked conditions
Hyperventilation syndrome43[1, 2, 5, 15]Asthma
Panic disorder
Periodic deep sighing12[8, 9, 45–47]Asthma
Panic disorder
Thoracic dominant breathing4[11, 47–49]Asthma
Heart failure
Panic disorder
Forced abdominal expiration2[50, 51]COPD
Thoraco-abdominal asynchrony6[52–54]Obstruction
Neuromuscular disease
Respiratory failure
  • COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.