TABLE 3

Drowning: when to initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and when to discontinue

Recommendations
When to begin?Give ventilatory support for respiratory distress/arrest to avoid cardiac arrest
Start CPR in all submersions lasting <60 min that do not present obvious physical evidence of death (rigor mortis, body decomposition or dependent lividity)
When to discontinue?Basic life support should continue until signs of life reappear, rescuer exhaustion or advanced life support takes over
Advanced life support should be ongoing until the patient has been rewarmed (if hypothermic) or asystole persists for >20 min
  • Reproduced from [1], with permission.