Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) for consolidation: evidence from systematic reviews

Number of studiesPopulation, unit of analysisUS features, comparatorReference standardPrevalence and numberSensitivitySpecificity
 Hew 2015 [32]4 studies
No meta-analysis
Hospitalised adults with acute respiratory failure,
By patient, lung or lung region
CT onlyUnable to summarise prevalence from heterogeneous units of analysis
224 patients
US: 98–100%
CXR: 38–68%
US: 78–100%
CXR: 89–95%
 Hu 2014 [65]9 studiesIncluded adults, children, neonates
By patient
UnstatedCXR/CT, or CXR only, or clinical diagnoses62.5% of 1080 patientsUS: 97%US: 94%
 Chavez 2014 [66]10 studiesAdults with clinical suspicion of pneumonia, or acute respiratory failure
By patient, lung, or lung region#
Consolidation or “alveolar and interstitial”CT only, or CXR or CT, or clinical diagnosis/CT/CXRCalculated at 50% of 1098 patients in studies analysed by patientUS: 94%US: 96%
 Ye 2015 [67]5 studiesClinically suspected pneumonia in adults
By patient
Uni/bilateral or focal alveolar–interstitial syndrome, or consolidation with air bronchogramsHospital discharge diagnosis67.3% of 742 patientsUS: 95%
CXR: 77%
US: 90%
CXR: 91%
Pulmonary embolism
 Squizzato 2013 [68]10 studiesClinical suspicion of PE
By patient
5 studies: round or wedge-shaped lesions
5 studies: not reported
6 studies: composite
4 studies: CTPA or V′/Q′ or MRA
61% of 887 patients87%81.8%
 Jiang 2015 [69]13 studiesAdults with suspected PE
By patient
7 studies: round or wedge-shaped lesions
6 studies: not reported
8 studies: composite
5 studies: CTPA or V′/Q′ or MRA
  • CXR: chest radiography; CT: computed tomography; PE: pulmonary embolus; CTPA: computed tomography pulmonary angiogram; V′/Q′: ventilation–perfusion scan; MRA: magnetic resonance angiogram;. #: Included and pooled studies reporting all three units of analysis.