Screening pulmonary manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome

When Sjögren's syndrome is known, ILD screening should be systematicWhen ILD is known, Sjögren's syndrome screening must be systematic
Investigate respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea, cough, crackles and squeaks, clubbing)
Exclude an infectious, medication ( or cardiovascular cause
Confirm ILD by performing chest computed tomography
Consultation with a lung specialist to discuss bronchoscopy with BAL, histological sampling (transbronchial and surgical biopsy) and therapeutic care
Investigate extra-respiratory symptoms suggestive of Sjögren's syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca, swelling of the salivary glands or hyposialia, arthritis, arthralgia), perform a minor salivary gland biopsy and do a urine analysis
Investigate antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, SSA/Ro and SSB/La, and perform serum protein electrophoresis
Exclude another connective tissue disease
Confirm dry eyes and dry mouth
Consult a connective tissue disease expert to discuss therapeutic care
  • ILD: interstitial lung disease; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage.