Classification of smoking related-interstitial lung diseases (ILDs)

1) Chronic ILDs strongly associated with   cigarette smokingRespiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD Desquamative interstitial pneumonia
 Adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis
2) Acute ILDs related to smokingAcute eosinophilic pneumonia
 Pulmonary haemorrhage syndromes
3) ILDs that are more prevalent in smokersIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
 Rheumatoid arthritis-associated ILD
4) ILDs that may be less prevalent in smokersHypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Reproduced and modified from [4] with permission from the publisher.