TABLE 1

Key features of two randomised trials of anticoagulation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Kubo et al. [8]Noth et al. [9]
DesignOpen label, randomised controlled trialDouble-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
Site5 hospitals in Japan22 centres in North America
Subjects n56145
 Intervention group2372
 Control group3373
InterventionPrednisolone plus warfarin (target INR 2.0–3.0) with intravenous LMWH during exacerbationWarfarin (target INR 2.0–3.0)
ControlPrednisolone aloneSham, dose-adjusted placebo
Baseline FVC % predicted
 Intervention group69±1359±16
 Control group71±1759±16
Baseline TLCO % predicted
 Intervention group59±1534±12
 Control group63±1435±13
Follow-up daysMedian 347 (intervention)
Median 399 (controls)
Mean 196
Steroid Use10028
Patients with exacerbation during follow-up
 Intervention group47.88.3
 Control group63.62.7
All-cause mortality during  follow-up
 Intervention group21.719.4
 Control group60.64.1
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. FVC: forced vital capacity; TLCO: transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide; INR: international normalised ratio; LMWH: low molecular weight heparin.