TABLE 2

Common comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

ComorbidityEffect/associations of comorbidity in COPDTreatment[Ref.]
Ischaemic heart  diseaseIncreased mortalityβ-blocker, ACE-I, aspirin, statin, nitrates[32, 33]
Congestive cardiac  failureIncreased symptom burden, increased mortalityAs above, plus diuretics Digoxin and implantable devices may be used in some patients[32, 34]
AnxietyPoor HRQoL, increased mortality, increased hospital admissionsCBT, benzodiazepines, exercise[35–37]
DepressionPoor HRQoL, increased mortality, increased hospital admissionsCBT, anti-depressants, exercise[37–39]
OsteoporosisReduced physical performance, poor lung functionCalcium supplements, bisphosphonates[40–44]
GORDMore frequent exacerbationsPPI, H2 receptor antagonist[45–47]
  • This is not an exhaustive list of all conditions or treatments; where possible, references specific to COPD, major review articles or international guidelines on management have been cited rather than single studies. GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; ACE-I: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; HRQoL: health-related quality of life; CBT: cognitive behavioural therapy, PPI: proton-pump inhibitor.