Table 1. Patient risk assessment
ParameterStable and satisfactoryStable and not satisfactoryUnstable and deteriorating
ESC/ERS guidelinesCurrent caseESC/ERS guidelinesCurrent caseESC/ERS guidelinesCurrent case
Clinical RV failureNoYesYes
Rate of progressionSlowRapidRapid
6MWD m>500#300–500<300220
VO2peak mL·min−1·kg−1>1512–15<12Not determined
BNP/NT-proBNPNormal/near normalElevatedVery elevated/increasingVery elevated
Echocardiography findingsNo PE and TAPSE >2.0 cmTAPSE 1.5–2.0 cmPE and/or TAPSE <1.5 cmPE and TAPSE 1.2 cm
HaemodynamicsRAP <8 mmHg and CI
≥2.5–3.0 L·min−1·m−2
RAP 8–15 mmHg or CI
2.0–2.5 L·min−1·m−2
RAP 12 mmHgRAP >15 mmHg and/or CI ≤2.0 L·min−1·m−2CI 1.6 L·min−1·m−2
  • ESC: European Society of Cardiology; ERS: European Respiratory Society; RV: right ventricular; NYHA: New York Heart Association; FC: functional class; 6MWD: 6-min walking distance; VO2peak: peak oxygen uptake; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-BNP; PE: pericardial effusion; TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; RAP: right atrial pressure; CI: cardiac index. #: depending on age, height, weight, aetiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension and presence of comorbidities. Adapted from [3] with permission from the publisher.