Table 1. Basis of the Hispanic paradox based on incidence, prevalence and mortality figures for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer in USA and South American populations comparing Mexican/Hispanic with other ethnicities
DiseaseClinical phenotypeComparisonOutcome %Risk reduction %First author [ref.]
COPDCOPD prevalence (%) over 2007–2009 among adults aged ≥18 yearsMexican versus non-Hispanic white2.6 versus 5.754Akinbami [34]
Mexican versus Puerto Rican2.6 versus 6.962
COPD prevalence unadjusted (GOLD)
Prevalence of rapid FEV1 decline
Mexican versus non-Hispanic white14.9 versus 29.550Bruse [35]
Mexican versus non-Hispanic white21.6 versus 31.632
COPD prevalence in two Latin American cities (adjusted for smoking and ethnicity)Mexico City versus Montevideo12.7 versus 20.337Menzes [36]
COPD mortality rates (2006) (age-adjusted per 100 000 per year)Hispanic versus Caucasian (males)21.2 versus 50.558American Lung Association [37]
Hispanic versus American Indian (males)21.2 versus 32.234
Hispanic versus Caucasian (females)13.1 versus 39.166
Hispanic versus American Indian (females)13.1 versus 28.654
Lung
cancer
Lung cancer incidence rates 2002–2006 (age-adjusted per 100 000 per year)Hispanic versus Caucasian (males)43.2 versus 77.644American Lung Association [38]
Hispanic versus American Indian (males)43.2 versus 51.616
Hispanic versus Caucasian (females)24.7 versus 54.855
Hispanic versus American Indian (females)24.7 versus 39.838
Lung cancer incidence rates 1999–2003 (age-adjusted per 100 000 per year)Hispanic versus Caucasian (males)52.7 versus 88.841Howe [39]
Hispanic versus Caucasian (females)26.7 versus 56.252
Lung cancer mortality rates 2002–2006 (age-adjusted per 100 000 per year)Hispanic versus Caucasian (males)33.9 versus 69.952American Lung Association [38]
Hispanic versus American Indian (males)33.9 versus 41.218
Hispanic versus Caucasian (females)14.4 versus 40.965
Hispanic versus American Indian (females)14.4 versus 28.349
Lung cancer mortality rates 1999–2003 (age-adjusted per 100 000 per year)Hispanic versus Caucasian (males)37.2 versus 73.850Howe [39]
Hispanic versus Caucasian (females)14.7 versus 42.065
  • GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s.