Table 2. Published data on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during pandemic influenza A H1N1
First author [ref.]YearCountryStudy designInterfaceReceived NIVNIV failureTransmission among HCW#MortalityObservations
Kaufman [21]2009AustraliaMulticentre, prospective cohort (n=3)Face mask0100%No
Perez-Padilla [22]2009MexicoRetrospective, multicentre cohort (n=98)Face maskn=18 (IMV: n=12)Yesn=722 HCW were treated with oseltamivir
None were hospitalised
None of the secondary infections among HCW were severe
Rello [23]2009SpainMulticentre cohort (n=32)Face maskn=8 (33%)75%Non=824 (75.0%) required IMV
Djibre [28]2009FranceCase 1: pregnantFace mask10%No0Pregnancy population
Kumar [24]2009CanadaProspective, observational, multicentre cohort (n=168)Face maskn=55 (33%)85%No136 (81.0%) patients received IMV
DomÍnguez-Cherit [31]2009MexicoProspective, observational, multicentre cohort (n=58)Face mask00No0
Miller [29]2009USAMonocentre, observational cohort (n=47)Face maskn=13 (3%)85%No17%Severe ARDS with MOF in the absence of bacterial infection was a common clinical presentation
Li [26]2010ChinaRetrospective, monocentre cohort (n=75)Face maskn=33 (44%)n=10 (30%)No10%
Koegelenberg [30]2010South AfricaMonocentre, observational cohort (n=19)Face maskn=6 (66%)66.6%Non=13 (68.4%)
Winck [36]2010PortugalCase report (n=1)Face maskn=10No
Esquinas [37]2010International NIV Network SurveyProspective, international, observational cohortFace maskNo
Hajjar [38]2010BrazilMonocentre cancer patients, observational study cohort (n=8)Face maskn=8 (50%)n=5 (62.5%)No100%Cancer patients highlight the severity of the H1N1 pandemic in this vulnerable population and the urgent need to establish specific protocols of care and management strategies designed to face this healthcare challenge
Louriz [40]2010MoroccoObservational, prospective, multicentre cohort (n=186)Face maskn=10n=10 (100%)30%
Adigüzel [32]2010TurkeyObservational, monocentre cohort (n=19)Face maskNasal cannula: n=4 (21.1%)NoFirst study to include nasal cannula
Nin [39]2011SpainMulticentre, observational, prospective cohort (n=96)Face maskn=43 (45%)77%No50% globalHigh mortality, primarily due to refractory hypoxia
RÍos [25]2011ArgentinaFace maskn=49 (28%)94%No
Liu [43]2011ChinaRetrospective, observational, monocentre cohort (n=62)Face maskn=23n=3Non=4 (6.5%)Hypoxaemia, MOF, and a requirement for IMV
Timenetsky [46]2011BrazilProspective, observational, monocentre cohort (n=14)Face mask85.7%58.4%No2.1%
Grasselli [45]2011ItalyProspective, observational, monocentre cohort (n=19)Face maskn=13n=11NoFrequent IMV
Belenguer-Muncharaz [47]2011SpainRetrospective, observational, monocentre cohortFace mask and helmetn=100No0First study to use a helmet and a face mask
Masclans [48]2012SpainProspective, observational, multicentre registry cohortFace maskn=177n=105 (59.32%)No0Best outcome in low APACHE II and SOFA, no vasopressor, lower chest radiograph quadrants and shorter ICU stay
Zhang [33]2012ChinaRetrospective, observational, monocentre cohort (n=394, including 1 pregnant subject) IMV (n=186)Face maskn=83n=45 (24.32%)Non=24 (28.91%)Pregnancy population
  • HCW: healthcare workers; IMV: invasive mechanical ventilation; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; MOF: multi-organ failure; APACHE II: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; ICU: intensive care unit. #: instances of transmission of influenza A H1N1 among HCW.