Table 3. Contraindications to exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure
Relative contraindications
    ≥1.8 kg increase in body mass over previous 1–3 days
    Concurrent continuous or intermittent dobutamine therapy
    Decrease in systolic blood pressure with exercise
    New York Heart Association functional class IV
    Complex ventricular arrhythmias at rest or appearing with exertion
    Supine resting heart rate ≥100 beats·min−1
    Pre-existing comorbidities
Absolute contraindications
    Progressive worsening of exercise tolerance, or dyspnoea at rest or on exertion over previous 3–5 days
    Significant ischaemia at low work rates (<2 METS or ≅50 W)
    Uncontrolled diabetes
    Acute systemic illness or fever
    Recent embolism
    Active pericarditis or myocarditis
    Moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis
    Regurgitant valvular heart disease requiring surgery
    Myocardial infarction within previous 3 weeks
    New onset atrial fibrillation
  • METS: metabolic equivalents. Reproduced from [87].