Table 1. Comorbidities commonly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Cardiovascular disease
    Coronary artery disease
    Systolic and/or diastolic left ventricular dysfunction
    Pulmonary hypertension
    Peripheral vascular disease
    Cerebrovascular disease
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and loss of muscle mass
Osteoporosis, osteopenia or osteoarthritis
Psychological disturbances
Cognitive impairment
Obstructive sleep apnoea
Diabetes/metabolic syndrome
Renal insufficiency
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
Lung cancer