Table 1. Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis
Direct pulmonary involvement
    ILD with PH
    Airways disease
    Pleural involvement
Indirect pulmonary complications
    Gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration
    Drug toxicity
    Respiratory muscle weakness
    Restrictive lung disease from skin involvement
    Secondary to cardiac involvement
Combination of direct and indirect pulmonary involvement
Other lung diseases unrelated to systemic sclerosis
    Pulmonary nodules
  • ILD: interstitial lung disease; PH: pulmonary hypertension; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.