Table 2. Diagnostic criteria for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
ProvenHistopathological or cytopathological examination of lung tissue showing hyphae from needle aspiration or biopsy specimen with evidence of associated tissue damage
positive culture result for Aspergillus from a sample obtained by sterile procedure from the lung
clinically or radiologically abnormal site consistent with infection
ProbableHost factor (table 1)
mycological evidence (positive Aspergillus microscopy or culture from the sputum or BAL or positive antigen assay#)
clinical criteria consistent with infection
PossibleHost factor (table 1)
clinical criteria consistent with the infection
  • BAL: bronchoalveolarlavage. #: Positive antigen assay: galactomannan antigen detected in plasma, serum, BAL fluid or cerebrospinal fluid, or β-d-glucan detected in serum. : Clinical criteria: new characteristic infiltrates on computed tomography imaging (dense, well-circumscribed lesion(s) with or without a halo sign, air-crescent sign, or cavity), tracheobronchitis seen by bronchoscopy, or noncharacteristic new infiltrates with a specific pulmonary symptom or sign (such as pleural rub, pleural pain, haemoptysis). Adapted from [117].