Table 1. Main histological lesions due to smoking and corresponding high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings
Smoker's macrophages within bronchiolar lumens and surrounding alveolar spaces, mild bronchiolar fibrosis and inflammationHazy centrilobular nodules
Patchy ground-glass opacity
Mild distortion of bronchiolar lumens with bronchioloectasia and mucostasisMild bronchial dilatation with wall thickening; mild air-trapping at expiratory computed tomography scanning
Centrilobular and subpleural emphysemaCentrilobular and paraseptal emphysema
Dense interstitial fibrosis, frequently surrounding emphysematous holesPeripheral and intralobular reticulation, ground-glass opacity intermingled with emphysematous areas
Increase in Langerhans’ cells forming stellate bronchiolocentric nodules, some of which are irregularly cavitated and fibroticIll-defined or cavitated centrilobular nodules