Table 3. Targeted treatment in severe refractory asthma
TreatmentTargetSummary results
OmalizumabAnti-IgEReduced exacerbation rate
Improved asthma score
Reduced inhaled glucocortocisteroids and rescue medication
MepolizumabAnti-IL5Reduced exacerbation rate
Reduced eosinophilia
Improved symptom control and quality of life
Reduced oral glucocorticosteroid dose
ReslizumabAnti-IL5Reduced sputum eosinophils
Improved pulmonary function
Trend towards better asthma control
GolimumabAnti-TNF-αNo improvement in pulmonary function
No reduction in exacerbation rate
Serious infection risks and malignancies
EtanerceptAnti-TNF-αInconsistent results
Improvement in pulmonary function and quality of life versus no clinical benefit/misbalanced risk/benefit ratio
DaclizumabAnti-IL2R chainImproved asthma control and pulmonary function
Reduction in SABA use
Prolonged time to exacerbation
SCH527123Anti-CXCR2Small reduction in mild exacerbations
Reduction in sputum neutrophils
Trend toward improvement in asthma control
LebrikizumabAnti-IL13Improvement in pulmonary function
TralokinumabAnti-IL13Improvement in pulmonary function
Reduction in β-agonist use
No improvement in asthma control
AMG 317Anti-IL4RNo effect on asthma control or exacerbations
  • IL: interleukin; TNF; tumour necrosis factor; IL2R: interleukin-2 receptor; SABA: short-acting β-agonist.