Table 3. Practical approach to lung health (PAL) reported results on managerial and economic outcomes
OutcomesClinical outcomesCountries
    ReferralIncrease in respiratory disease management in primary healthcare
Decrease in referral to upper health level
Bolivia, El Salvador, Guinea, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, South Africa
    Strengthening health servicesStrengthening of health workers' self confidence
Upgrading of health workers' skills
South Africa
    CostReduction in the average cost of drug prescription per respiratory patientAlgeria, Bolivia, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia
    Patient out-of-pocket expenseDecrease in direct and indirect costsNepal
    Cost effectiveness of PALRelatively cost effectiveNepal, South Africa