Table 5. Pesticide exposure and bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults
First author [ref.]Bronchitis definitionExposure metricCo-exposuresOR (95% CI)
Beard [15]Self-reported bronchitisBoard of Tick Control (NSW, Australia) records estimating type of chemical and duration of exposure estimatesAgricultural environment, cattle1.32 (0.87–2.01)
Chakraborty [17]Self-reported bronchitis with >50% cholinesterase inhibitionSplit into regular sprayers (at least 1 h per day, 5 days per month for 5 years) or occasional sprayersAgricultural environment4.1 (2.2–6.3)
Chakraborty [17]COPD using GOLD method and >50% cholinesterase inhibitionSplit into regular sprayers (at least an hour per day, 5 days per month for 5 years) or occasional sprayersAgricultural environment1.59 (1.32–2.28)
Faria [18]Self-reported chronic respiratory diseaseApply pesticides >2 days per month versus no exposureAgricultural environment, cattle, birds, horses1.05 (0.74–1.51)
Hoppin [14]Doctor-diagnosed bronchitisHigh pesticide exposure eventAgriculture environment1.85 (1.51–2.25)
Schenker [20]Self-reported bronchitisParaquat exposure using a cumulative paraquat exposure indexAgricultural environment (banana, coffee and palm oil)1.30 (0.9–2.0)
Jones [23]Death certificatesEmployment in relevant industryUnknownMortality study, therefore no OR
Bronchitis was not reported as a separate outcome
  • GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.