Table 1. Pesticide exposure and asthma in adults
First author [ref.]Asthma definitionExposure metricCo-exposuresOR (95% CI)
Beard [15]Self-reported asthmaBoard of Tick Control (NSW, Australia) records used to estimate type of chemical and duration of exposure estimatesAgricultural environment, cattle1.59 (1.05–2.43)
Boers[16]Self-reported, doctor-diagnosed asthmaJob history of exposure to pesticides (yes/no)Agricultural environment (for some participants)0.41 (0.15–1.11)
Urinary markers1.18 (0.93–1.50)
Chakraborty [17]Self-reported, doctor-diagnosed asthmaSplit into regular sprayers (at least 1 h a day, 5 days per month for 5 years) or occasional sprayersAgricultural environment1.34 (1.09–1.79)
Faria [18]Symptoms of asthma (≥2 episodes of wheezing with shortness of breath in lifetime)Apply pesticides >3 days per month versus no exposureAgricultural environment, cattle, birds, horses2.12 (1.19–3.75)
Hoppin [9]Self-reported, doctor-diagnosed, adult-onset asthmaUse of any pesticide, lifetime total years of pesticide use and frequencyAgricultural environment1.46 (1.14–1.87)#
1.00 (0.82–1.22)
Hoppin [10]Self-reported, doctor-diagnosed, adult-onset asthmaHistory of high pesticide exposure eventsAgricultural environment1.98 (1.30–2.99)#
1.96 (1.49–2.56)
Nriagu [19]Self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthmaUse of insecticides in the homeUnknown3.67 (1.19–11.3)
Schenker [20]Self-reported diagnosed asthma everParaquat exposure using a cumulative paraquat exposure indexAgricultural environment (banana, coffee and palm oil)1.60 (0.9–3.0)
Zhang [21]Self-reported attack of asthma in last 12 monthsSelf-reports of insecticide exposureOutdoor agricultural worker, biomass fuel burning1.9 (1.3–2.9)
Huang [22]Lung function testing and symptom reportingExposure measured based on job title and air monitoringUnknownNR
Jones [23]Death from asthma or other respiratory problemsEmployment in relevant industryUnknownMortality study, NR. Asthma was not reported as a separate outcome
Yemaneberhan [24]Self-reported asthma, wheezing or coughSelf-reported exposure questionnaireConsidered and included smoking and atopyThe results of children and adults were not reported separately
  • #: atopic asthma; : nonatopic asthma. NR: not reported.