Table 3. Antifibrotic effects in cell-based assays
ReferenceSystemFibroblast proliferationECM productionFibrotic markers
Di Sario et al. [79]Primary rat hepatic stellate cellsInhibited PDGF-stimulated proliferationReduced TGF-β induced collagen I (protein and mRNA)
Ozes and Blatt [80]Human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1)Reduced TGF-β induced collagen (protein)
Sulfab et al. [81]Human unbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)Reduced TGF-β stimulated fibronectin, collagen IV, and thrombospondin-2 proteins#Reduced TGF-β stimulated ET-1, IGFBP-3 and TGF-β isoforms 1-3
Nakayama et al. [82]Normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF)Reduced TGF-β induced collagen I expression (protein and mRNA)Reduced TGF-β induced expression of the collagen chaperone HSP47 (protein and mRNA)
Zhang et al. [83]Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cellsReduced TGF-β induced fibronectin (protein) production
Hewitson et al. [84]Rat renal fibroblast isolated after ureteral obstruction (a mixture of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts)Reduced fibroblast proliferationCollagen protein production unaffected (slight reduction)Reduced α-SMA and CTGF protein expression
Lin et al. [85]Human tenon’s fibroblasts (isolated from eye and expanded)Reduced serum-stimulated fibroblast proliferation. Increased population of G1-phase cells and decreased S-phase.Reduced TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 mRNA and protein expression; reduced fibroblast migration and collagen matrix contraction
Lee et al. [86]Human myometrial and leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (benign uterine fibroid tumour cells)Reduced serum-stimulated fibroblast proliferationReduced collagen I and III mRNA expression
  • Blank boxes denote end-points that were not assessed. All results statistically significant (per reference) with the exception of one treatment related trend (#). ECM: extracellular matrix; PDGF: platelet derived growth factor; TGF: transforming growth factor; ET: endothelin; IGFBP: insulin-like growth factor binding protein; HSP: heat shock protein; SMA: smooth muscle actin; CTGF: connective tissue growth factor; G1-phase: gap 1 phase; S-phase: synthesis phase.