Table 1 Goals recommended by the latest European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines for pulmonary hypertension
Better prognosisDeterminants of prognosisWorse prognosis
NoClinical evidence of RV failureYes
SlowRate of progression of symptomsRapid
Longer (>500 m)#6MWTShorter (<300 m)
Peak VO2 >15 mL·min−1·kg−1Cardiopulmonary exercise testingPeak VO2 <12 mL·min−1·kg−1
Normal or near normalBNP/NT-proBNP plasma levelsVery elevated and rising
No pericardial effusion TAPSE >2.0 cmEchocardiographic findingsPericardial effusion TAPSE <1.5 cm
RAP <8 mmHg and CI ≥2.5 L·min−1·m−2HaemodynamicsRAP >15 mmHg or CI ≤2.0 L·min−1·m−2
  • RV: right ventricle; WHO FC: World Health Organization functional class; 6MWT: 6-min walking test; VO2: oxygen uptake; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; RAP: right arterial pressure; CI: cardiac index. #: depending on age; : TAPSE and pericardial effusion have been selected as they can be measured in the majority of patients. Reproduced from [4] with permission from the publisher.