Table 1. Prognostic value of right heart parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension: echocardiography
ParameterCorrelationStudy designFirst author [ref.]
Pericardial effusionMortalityRetrospective, multi- centre; n=276Zhang [24]
MortalityRegistry data; n=2716Benza [4]
Mortality; combined end-point death/transplantationProspective, multi- centre; n=81Raymond [25]
Right ventricular failure; exercise tolerance; poor prognosisSingle centre; n=79Hinderliter [26]
Right atrial sizeMortality; transplantationProspective, single centre; n=25Bustamante-Labarta [27]
Right atrial indexed areaMortalityProspective, multi- centre; n=81Raymond [25]
Right ventricular diameterMortalityProspective, single centre; n=72Ghio [28]
Right ventricular fractional area changeMortalityProspective, single centre; n=59Ghio [29]
TAPSESurvivalProspective, single centre; n=59Ghio [29]
Right ventricular function; survivalProspective, single centre; n=47Forfia [30]
Right ventricular myocardial performance (Tei) indexCardiac death/transplantationRetrospective, single centre; n=53Yeo [31]
Degree of pulmonary regurgitation; left ventricular eccentricity index; presence of pericardial effusionRetrospective, single centre; n=93Grapsa [32]
Tricuspid valve regurgitationSurvivalProspective, single centre; n=59Ghio [29]
Mortality; transplantationProspective, single centre; n=25Bustamante-Labarta [27]
EccentricitySurvivalProspective, single centre; n=59Ghio [29]
Composite end-point of death/transplantationProspective, multi- centre; n=81Raymond [25]
Right ventricular free wall systolic strainDisease severity, disease progression and mortalityProspective, single centre; n=80Sachdev [33]
Right ventricular dyssynchronyWHO FC; eccentricity index; hospitalisations due to PH/heart failureProspective, single centre; n=52López-Candales [34]
Right ventricular systolic to diastolic duration ratioClinical outcomes; 6MWD; death or transplantation; right ventricular fractional area of changeRetrospective, single centre; n=47Alkon [35]
  • TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; WHO FC: World Health Organization functional class; PH: pulmonary hypertension; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance.