Table 1. Classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) owing to left heart diseases
Heart failure with reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (ejection fraction ≤50%#; systolic dysfunction)
    Ischaemic cardiomyopathy
    Dilated cardiomyopathy
Heart failure with preserved left ventricle ejection fraction (ejection fraction >50%#; diastolic dysfunction)
    Hypertensive heart disease
    Coronary heart disease
    Diabetic cardiomyopathy
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    Restrictive cardiomyopathy
    Constrictive pericarditis
Valvular diseases
    Aortic valve stenosis
    Aortic valve regurgitation
    Mitral valve stenosis
    Mitral valve regurgitation
    Persistent/residual PH after effective valvular defect correction
Other causes
    Cor triatriatum
    Myxoma or left atrial thrombus
  • #: the cut-off value for preserved versus reduced ejection fraction varies between studies; : definition from Simonneau et al. [2]. Modified from [4].