Table 1. Clinical and biochemical data of all cases of hypercalcaemia in tuberculosis (TB) reported in children in the past 25 yrs
AgeSexTB diseaseClinical features of hypercalcaemiaSerum calcium at presentation mmol·L−1Highest serum calciummmol·L−1Day of anti-TB treatment25(OH)2D3 nmol·L−11,25(OH)2D3 pmol·L−1PTH pmol·L−1Urinary calcium/ creatinine ratioTreatment of hypercalcaemiaRef.
14 daysFDisseminated3.5526i.v. fluids, steroids,frusemide[7]
21 weeksMMiliaryNo symptoms reported3.393.7017971532.0Excretion:0.3 mmol·kg−1per 24 hSteroids, restriction[6]
5 yrsMPulmonary + lymph nodeNo symptoms reported3.053.05Pre-treatment852161.30.38[9]
6 yrsMPulmonary + paracoccidioidomycosisLimb and joint pain, although hard to distinguish from paracoccidioidomycosis3.73Pre-treatment<0.10.70i.v. fluids, frusemide[10]
7 yrsMPulmonaryLethargy, although hard to distinguish from TB; second degree heart block4.604.60Pre-treatment132Undetectablei.v. fluids, steroids, frusemide, dialysis, calcitonin, phosphate, indomethacin[5]
9 yrsMPulmonaryNo symptoms reported2.952.95Pre-treatment681542.20.27[9]
10 yrsMPulmonaryNo symptoms reportedIonised: 1.45Ionised: 1.45Pre-treatment942091.30.35Ketoconazole[8]
10 yrsFPulmonaryNo symptoms reported3.253.25Pre-treatment621751.80.35[9]
13 yrsFPulmonaryAbdominal pain, vomiting, muscle aches, low mood1.963.7423144311<0.7Level:7.82 mmol·L−1Restriction,i.v. fluidsPresent study
14 yrsMPulmonaryNo symptoms reportedIonised: 1.55Ionised: 1.55Pre-treatment813221.80.41Ketoconazole[8]
15 yrsFPeritonealNo symptoms reported3.74Approx. 10171161.0i.v. fluids,steroids[4]
  • PTH: parathyroid hormone; F: female; M: male. Normal ranges: serum calcium 2.18–2.47 mmol·L−1; ionised calcium 1.14–1.31 mmol·L−1; 25(OH)D3 75–200 nmol·L−1; 1,25(OH)2D3 40–150 pmol·L−1; PTH 1.1–6.9 pmol·L−1; urine calcium/creatinine ratio <0.21; urine calcium 1.87–3.39 mmol·L−1; urine calcium excretion <0.125 mmol·kg−1 per 24 h.