Table 2. All causes implicated in desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), other than tobacco smoking
Occupational exposure to inorganic particles[1, 2 8–10]Nature of particles: Si, Mg, Ti, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cr, Au, Ag, Al, K, Ti, BaS, Be, Cu
Occupation: tool grinder, arc polisher, tyre manufacturing worker, plastic machinist, Al arc welder, worker exposed to fire-extinguisher powder, diesel fumes
Exposure to mycotoxins[37–43]Occupational exposure to aflatoxin (textile worker)
Connective tissue diseases[44, 45]
Rheumatoid arthritis[46]
Infection[48–50]DIP following concurrent CMV and Aspergillus pneumonias in a renal transplant recipient (who did not receive sirolimus)
Association of DIP and HCV infection
Association of DIP and CMV infection in a baby
Use of marijuana[51]
  • CMV: cytomegalovirus; HCV: hepatitis C virus.